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Rekreacyjne 1, Akcja 1, Przygodowe 1, Jednoosobowe 1, Wieloosobowe 1, Duchess of Bari and Rossano, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, legal heir to the Duchy of Milan, and Isabella of Naples, daughter of King Alfonso II of Naples.
Thanks to the efforts of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Bona married the widowed King Sigismund II Augustus and became Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania.
Mother of Sigismund II Augustus and four daughters: Isabella, Sophia, Anna, and Catherine. The portraits of Bona are scarce, especially those presenting her as a middle-aged woman.
The ones we have present her as a young beautiful girl or mature woman during her last years of marriage or widowhood.
Last male monarch from the Jagiellonian dynasty, crowned as co-ruler alongside his father on February 20, , King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania , married three times, with Elisabeth of Austria m.
The portrayed king is wearing the so-called cuera — garment resembling cuirasses, with short sleeves and high collar, popularised in Europe thanks to the Spanish fashion.
Attention should be paid to a different way of depicting the face of Sigismund Augustus in comparison with the other members of the dynasty depicted by Cranach.
One is another portrait miniature, held by the National Museum in Krakow, showing Sigismund II wearing almost the same garment as in the Cranach work.
Similar facial features and painting elaboration can also be seen in a portrait from the collection of Archduke Ferdinand of Tirol in Ambras, presenting the King in armour as a rex armatus.
Thus, the artist from Wittenberg probably presented the actual appearance of Sigismund II Augustus, elegantly dressed not only following the then fashion at European courts but also according to his personal preferences.
The oldest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary, first wife of Sigismund II Augustus m. In the Cranach portrait miniature, she is depicted in almost the same way as in the painting by Master PF.
The portrait might have been sent to Poland on the occasion of her engagement to Sigismund II Augustus. In this case, we can therefore speak of an almost exact copy.
Elizabeth is wearing a red velvet dress trimmed at neck and with sleeves with gold embroidery. Puffy sleeves are decorated with three bands made of fabric with flower and ewer-shaped ornaments.
The sleeves are slashed, and the undershirt is pulled through. Part of her white chemise is also visible at the neckline, which is attached to a stand-up collar with golden bands.
She is wearing an openwork coif and a flat cap atop her hair. Some elements of their gowns are similar.
The neckline, trimmed with a braid embroidered with pearls and gemstones, is attached to a stand-up collar with golden bands, and a white chemise made of delicate, pleated material is visible underneath.
The gloves that Barbara is holding have slashes on the fingers following the then German fashion. She is wearing a white veil or headscarf partially visible on the left side of her face over which a kind of built-up, richly decorated structure has been placed, almost entirely covered with gold, pearls, gemstones, and jewels.
There is a beret on it, with gold edging and rhombus embroidery. Daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary, sister of Elizabeth of Austria first wife of Sigismund II Augustus , third wife of Sigismund II Augustus m.
In the Cranach portrait miniature, she is wearing a Southern-style dress, not seen before in the series.
During her stay in Poland, Elizabeth favoured Italian fashion at first, and later, the Spanish style. In the portrait held by Czartoryski Museum, she is depicted in a garment with Italian and German elements.
The bodice of the black dress is decorated with oval patches. She is wearing a necklace with a giant pearl, which she is holding in her hand.
The second gem is attached to a stand-up collar, under which a fragment of a pleated collar made of lace is showing. On her head, the Queen is wearing a golden bonnet and a beret with gold chains, jewels, and an enseigne sewn on.
Polish and Lithuanian princess, Queen of Hungary, the oldest child of Sigismund I the Old and Bona Sforza.
Despite the similarity of both women, it is important to notice that Lucas Cranach managed to depict her individual traits accurately. Apart from the necessity to wear a modest and black dress, it was forbidden to wear any jewellery for two years.
Daughter of Sigismund I the Old and Bona Sforza, wife of Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel m. In the three Cranach portrait miniatures, three Jagiellonian princesses, Sophia, Catherine and Anna, are depicted in the same artistic convention.
The sisters have their hair done and are dressed in gowns that follow fashion trends popular at the Polish and Habsbourg courts in the s.
White cuffs of the golden chemises and thin pleated collars are showing from under their black gowns.
Their pulled back hair is covered in a sort of net made of bands sewn together, and atop their hair, they are wearing small hats embroidered with gemstones.
The top attention-grabbing elements of their clothes include calligraphic trimmings, dress spatches and jewellery.
The princesses are wearing heavy, exquisite necklaces and pendants. Each princess has two of them — one with her initials, second with a cross with a pearl.
Thanks to the pendants with their initials S for Sophia, C for Catherine, A for Anna , the sisters can be distinguished one from the other.
Interestingly, the jewellery depicted in the Cranach portrait miniatures were the actual pieces, made of gold, diamond, rubies, and white enamel which were designed for Sophia, Catherine and Anna by Nicholas Nonarth ca from Wittenberg on special request of their father, Sigismund I the Old.
The only pendant that has survived to this day is the one own by Catherine — it was discovered in in her tomb in Uppsala. Their pulled back hairis covered in a sort of net made of bands sewntogether, and atop their hair, they are wearing small hats embroidered with gemstones.
The top attention-grabbing elements of their clothesinclude calligraphictrimmings, dres spatches and jewellery.
Circular wax seal, lozengy background, diameter: 45 mm, edge almost wholly damaged. Armorial coat of arms, with late Gothic shield, parted quarterly, four coat of arms occupying the field of the escutcheon: of Poland crowned eagle , Lithuania armour-clad knight on horseback holding a spear, not a sword, and shield , Kalisz Land head of the aurochs with a ring in the nostrils against a checkerboard background , Kuyavia lands half-eagle and half-lion under one crown.
Bust of a winged angel atop the shield, with his hands put on the upper edge of the shield. It is a fair copy of financial records of the maintenance of the royal court and was created after the end of a specific reference period.
Bound in manuscript waste, with a fragment of a notarial act. Letter written by Casimir IV Jagiellon to Michael, Chancellor of Moldavia, in response to his previous letter, confirming its content which is unknown to us.
The letter is in Chancery Slavonic, i. Old Church Slavonic used in the chancery of Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Interestingly, its palaeography resembles Old Ukrainian rather than Old Belarusian language. It is a part of a larger collection comprising manuscripts written by Polish kings and other rulers from to e.
I; Horodyski B. Coat of arms of Poland in the central field, closed crown above dividing two solid and pearled lines that run around the shield.
Central field with floral ornamental background, surrounded by nine coats of arms in the form of a wreath, leaning to each other.
At the very top of the seal, two coats of arm of Lithuania Pahonia, Vytis and of Austria white band originated from the arms of the Babenberg dynasty , leaning to each other, dividing the inscription around the border in two.
Floral ornamental background. Great Royal Seal was used on behalf of the king by the Grand Royal Chancellery. It used to be impressed in wax or wax mounted on paper on official state documents and privileges.
Object type: Great Royal Seal Owner: Sigismund I the Old Created: Physical description: coloured wax seal impression, leather cord, diameter of seal: 74 mm, of wax impression: ,5 mm Bibliographic references: Gumowski M.
The shield, supported by two kneeling angels, is parted quarterly, with coats of arms of Poland and Lithuania set in squares, with a closed crown above, and a small cross in the crest that divide the inscription running around the edge of the seal in two parts.
Ornamental background on the shield. Lesser Royal Seal was used on behalf of the king in the Lesser Royal Chancellery. It used to be impressed in wax or wax mounted on paper on official state documents, and privileges.
Its size was similar to the Great Royal Seal. Object type: Lesser Royal Seal Owner: Sigismund I the Old Created: Physical description: coloured wax seal impression, silk cords, diameter of seal: 46 mm, of wax impression: 88 mm Bibliographic references: Gumowski M.
Obverse with a bust of Sigismund I the Old facing right. Sigismund is wearing a closed crown with a cross, and Renaissance armour, called Maximilian armour, with large pauldrons and epaulettes protecting both sides of the neck.
Producer: Giovanni Maria Mosca, called Padovano Object type: medal of Sigismund I the Old Created: Cracow? Przewodnik po wystawie, Warszawa , p. Unique copy of a work describing last days and death of Sigismund I the Old, who died on April 1, , with a fine medallion portrait of the King.
The portrait also appeared in a funeral speech by Mathias Franconius, published probably at the same time. Its author, Jacob Filipowski from Opole identified with Opole Lubelskie in Lublin Voivodeship , attended the funeral ceremony in Cracow.
The book is dedicated to Bernard Maciejowski, Castellan of Radom. In the dedication, Filipowski emphasizes that Sigismund I the Old was not only an ideal ruler, but also a pious Christian, and his subjects should follow his example.
The authorship of the work is sometimes attributed to Giovanni Cini? Producer: anonymous Object type: medal of gratitude produced on the occasion of the birth of the prince and heir Sigismund II Augustus Production: Cracow, , restrike of a later date Physical description: cast circular blackened tin medal with pendant, diameter: 27,,8 mm, height with pendant: 32,8 mm, weight: 9,03 g Bibliographic references: Gumowski M.
Unique copy of a song written for the third wedding of Sigismund II Augustus in , one of the earliest examples of a polyphonic song published as a separate booklet.
Only three leaves of the original work have survived, probably the first part of the song, as the text focuses only on the circumstances of the wedding and on the reasons why Sigismund chose Catherine of Austria for his future wife.
The description of the wedding itself does not appear in the text. Although Sigismund II Augustus decided to wed Catherine sister of his first wife because of political reasons, the song presents his motifs in a different light, through royal ideology and Christian piety.
The text is accompanied by music notes, written for four voices. The same cantus firmus in the tenor voice was to emphasize the joyful nature of these two events.
Letter signed by Sigismund II Augustus, written in Vilnius in to Ludovicus Montius, Polish representative in Italy active in The letter, written in Italian, focuses on the question of money that was given to Montius for his service.
The letter is a part of a larger collection comprising letters to Montius by, e. Bona Sforza, Stanislaus Hosius, Philip Padniewski.
Turska, vol. Obverse with a bust of Sigismund II Augustus en face. Narrow edging, protruding parts of the obverse very much worn.
XX: 82; Skarby Historii Polski. Obverse with a bust of Sigismund II Augustus facing right. The King is presented with a small moustache and long forked beard, without any headwear, wearing Renaissance armour, with some of its elements breastplate, bevor with faulds, fragment of the pauldron clearly visible, shirt with a small ruff.
Reverse with a figure reminiscent of the coat of arms of Lithuania: charging armour-clad knight on horseback holding a sword, knight with a crested helm, in right profile.
Producer: Herwijck, Steven Cornelis van Hartwijck; ca Object type: medal of Sigismund II Augustus Production: Vilnius? Obverse with a bust of the Queen Bona Sforza facing right, wearing a widow dress with two collars, with the outer one stiff, and a Renaissance coif made of translucent material through which her hair can be seen.
The medal is probably a 19th-century copy made of bolted obverse and reverse. Producer of the obverse: Giovanni Michele Pastorino de Pastorini; Object type: medal of the Queen Bona Sforza Production: Ferrara, obverse , reverse , restrikes of a later date 19th century?
Obverse with a bust of the Queen en face , wearing a Renaissance coif with a wimple, dress and fur coat. Short, seven-line letter written in Italian by Bona Sforza, with her signature.
The letter was written in Warsaw in while the queen was staying in Masovia — she spent eight years there from , when Sigismund I the Old died, to , when she left for Bari.
Little is known about the addressee of the letter. Apart from letters by Bona Sforza, the collection comprises the correspondence of Catharine of Austria third wife of Sigismund II Augustus , Sigismund II Augustus, cardinal Stanislaus Hosius.
I; Bogucka M. One of the most important legal acts was the Nihil novi constitution adopted by the Polish parliament in Wenceslaus, St.
Adalbert of Prague, St. Stanislaus, St. Florian , session of the Polish bicameral parliament with king Alexander Jagiellon see presented woodcut.
The copy held by the Ossolineum Library is one of the 12 volumes printed on parchment for high-ranking officials of the Kingdom of Poland.
Sebastiani Gilbaszewski Instigatoris Regni [second half of the 17th century]; 2. Ex Bibliotheca Ill. Et Mci Thomae Antonij in Zamoscio Ordinati Zamoyski Palatini Lublinensis [18th century]; 3.
The second edition of the so-called Third Statute of Lithuania approved in The Statutes, drawn up in three versions in , and , collected and standardised various laws of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in one document.
The need to adjust the customary and tribal laws to the changing social and political conditions appeared at the times of the Union of Krewo — different provinces adopted different legal rules and regulations which were later modified with the privileges granted by the Jagiellonians.
This legal confusion, along with some changes in the ownership structure in Lithuania, brought into sharp focus the need for codifying the laws in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
In , Alexander Jagiellon announced a plan to create a code of law of Lithuania but it was at the times of Sigismund I the Old that the actual work was initiated.
The Third Statute was elaborated to bring together the laws of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania after the Union of Lublin.
The copy presented in the exhibition is a fine and rare example of the 16th-century book printed in Cyrillic alphabet.
Wilkaniec R[egent] Ziemski] G[rodzki] P[owiatu] L[idzkiego]; [Seba]stian [Lam? One of the few existing copies of the first edition of De Republica emendanda On the Improvement of the Commonwealth by Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, a Polish political writer.
Originally, the treatise was supposed to have five books as announced on the title page , but because of the religious censorship only three first chapters were published in Cracow in Bishop Stanislaus Hosius ordered to destroy already printed sheets of the two last books De ecclesia On Church and De schola On School.
In De Republica emendanda , Modrzewski presented his program of reforms that should be implemented in Poland, e. Combining the thoughts of the Ancients with his own reflections, Modrzewski proposed specific solutions, but their implementation was impossible in the 16 th century — he postulated, inter alia, that all citizens should be equal before the law.
In , a German translation of all five books was published in Basel. This Arian edition does not include the book On the Church because of the censorship.
Although it was reissued many times, until it was the only existing Polish translation of De Republica emendanda.
Liber Domus SS. Christi Can. Casimiriae ad Cracoviam [16th century]; 2. Former collection of the Ossolineum Library in Lviv, shelfmark The first edition of the polemic dialogues by Stanislaus Orzechowski, which were published in when the Polish Executionist movement reached its peak.
This political movement, popular especially among lesser and middle nobility, demanded, e. The movement started to be formed at the beginning of the 16th century, but it was in , when the king himself, Sigismund II Augustus, expressed his support for the Executionists, that the implementation of its demands became a real possibility.
Stanislaus Orzechowski, who was a Roman Catholic priest and an active political writer, published then his Conversation, or Dialogue on the Executionist movement featuring the Host, the Catholic and the Protestant.
Orzechowski expressed his objections against the propositions concerning the Church, i. He concentrated on the political system of the Republic of Poland, stating that the Church is its most important element.
The royal power itself seems to be strictly subordinated to the authority of the Priest. The first edition of a political dialogue against the deputies of the Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland written by Stanislaus Orzechowski.
Orzechowski changes the traditional pattern of a quincunx — the Christian Church, which is the fifth element, is placed at the top and towers over Faith, Priest, Altar and King which all form a square.
According to this concept, Poland should be mainly dependent on the Catholic Church which is supported by secular and religious authorities working together in harmony.
Most of the dialogue held between the Catholic, the Protestant and the Author himself is dedicated to the relationship which should be established between the Catholic Church and a king.
Orzechowski suggests that the reforms of the Executionists movement should be implemented by increasing the authority of the clergy in order to control a king so that he could not abuse his power.
Relationship between these two powers is presented in the picture where a female personification of Poland called Polonia appearing here in print for the first time is standing on the shoulders of a pope and a king.
Jeremi Lasockij [17th century]; 2. A unique copy of the first printed edition of the laws promulgated by the Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland held in Poland in , one of the most known Sejms in Polish history.
The resolutions enacted by the Sejm in Lublin brought an end to a long and slow unification process of Poland and Lithuania, initiated in with the Union of Krewo that put the two countries under the same sovereign.
As Sigismund II Augustus had no male heirs, the Polish nobles feared that after his death the personal union would be broken.
In the king ceded to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland the hereditary right of the Jagiellonians to govern the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
One of the obstacles on the path to the unification of the two countries was the separate administrative and legal code of law adopted by Lithuania.
Therefore, increased efforts were made to amend the Statue in Lithuania of — its new form was approved in In the document, the king transferred some of his powers to the Lithuanian Sejm, making its competences similar to those held by the Crown Sejm.
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